Imperiia: a spatial history of the Russian EmpireMain MenuAboutDashboardsData CatalogMapStoriesGalleriesGamesWho said history was boring?Map ShelfTeach Our ContentCiting the ProjectKelly O'Neilldc20b45f1d74122ba0d654d19961d826c5a557f5The Imperiia Project // Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Harvard University
Crimea's southern coast, 1817
12022-07-02T11:32:15-04:00Kelly O'Neilldc20b45f1d74122ba0d654d19961d826c5a557f591Military topographical survey map by Semyon Mukhin (Topographical Depot, General Staff)plain2022-07-02T11:32:15-04:001817Kelly O'Neilldc20b45f1d74122ba0d654d19961d826c5a557f5
12022-06-27T12:39:21-04:00Garden Locator30Gardens of Crimea componentplain2022-07-06T12:55:29-04:00
Ready to turn the clock back to the early nineteenth century?
"Gardens of Crimea" highlights the 809 orchards registered as state properties in the early years of Russian imperial rule. The registers associate each orchard plot with one of eighty-nine villages, but for thirty we have data identifying tree quantities and types. Those thirty villages are highlighted in this project.
In 1817 a cartographer named Semyon Mukhin working for the Military Topographical Depot of the Russian General Staff produced a ground-breaking topographical survey map of Crimea.
Newer isn't always better.
Mukhin published his map twenty-four years after the compilation of the garden registers - that is a meaningful amount of time in which all sorts of things changed. Wars, droughts, earthquakes, tragedies and triumphs of all kinds. And hundreds - maybe even thousands - of maps have been made of Crimea between 1817 and today. Nevertheless, this is the first map produced at a scale that allows us a detailed look at the peninsula's topography. It allows us to see each village in its historical context. The modern elements we are used to - roads, rail lines, boundaries, etc. - are missing: take this opportunity to retrain your eye to see space the way it was long ago.
Here is a zoomed-in view of the southern coast of the peninsula. Move your cursor across the image to see the garden locations. The villages are listed below as "tagged" pages - go to any location page by clicking the placename.
Prevalence in tree population: 40% (6,272 trees) Occurrence rate: 93%
The plum is by far the dominant tree on the orchard registers (hazelnuts are a distant second with 14% of the tree population). Plums were widespread and prominent, with an average of 224 trees in the collected gardens of each village (whereas the average number of apple trees was 25).
Where are the Orchards?
Move your cursor over the map below. White rectangles will appear showing the locations of villages with orchards containing plum trees. test
12022-06-27T16:17:40-04:00Alupka12garden locationplain2023-01-09T23:58:21-05:0044.4195, 34.0449There were 5 orchards and 4 vineyards at Alupka. Together the gardens covered just over an acre. The former owners were Crimean Tatars. Decades later, Prince Mikhail Vorontsov would build a famous palace here. Care to have a look?
12022-06-27T16:14:32-04:00Alushta9garden locationplain2022-07-03T10:13:47-04:0044.6773, 34.4097Alushta appears only once in the garden register, with an orchard of 159 trees.
12022-06-27T16:17:05-04:00Autka6garden locationplain2022-07-04T06:51:10-04:0044.4914, 34.1366There were 92 orchards and 33 vineyard plots at Autka. Though each was small, together they covered over 15 acres.
12022-06-27T16:18:49-04:00Laspi6garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:20:44-04:0044.4239, 33.7313A single large orchard appears on the registers. Its former owner was Greek.
*128 Greeks left Laspi to resettle on the shores of the Azov Sea in 1778.
12022-06-27T16:14:47-04:00Buyuk Lambat6garden locationplain2022-07-02T13:17:48-04:0044.6136, 34.3647There were 62 orchards and 16 vineyard plots at Buyuk Lambat, all owned, in the past, by Greeks. The gardens covered over 14 acres.
12022-06-27T16:15:30-04:00Kirkulet5garden locationplain2022-07-03T10:28:01-04:0044.5761, 34.3225There were two small orchards at Kirkulet (Kirklet, Kirkleut), both once owned by Greeks.
12022-06-27T16:14:22-04:00Demerdzhi5garden locationplain2022-07-02T12:34:28-04:0044.7365, 34.4006The two orchards at Demerdzhi had been owned by Greeks. They covered 2.7 acres.
12022-06-27T12:38:39-04:00Kozy4garden locationplain2022-07-03T10:36:48-04:0044.8719, 35.1062There were 59 orchards and 72 vineyards at Kozy.
12022-06-27T12:42:03-04:00Küçük Uzen4garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:09:19-04:0044.7589, 34.5579Küçük Uzen (Kuchuk Uzen) had 23 orchards and 9 vineyards once owned by Greeks.
12022-06-27T16:16:36-04:00Magarach4garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:32:42-04:0044.5049, 34.2113The registers list 25 orchards and 22 vineyards at Magarach, all the former property of Greeks.
12022-06-27T16:16:46-04:00Masandra4garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:45:30-04:0044.5096, 34.1882There were 23 orchards at Masandra (Massandra), all previously owned by Greeks. (Hundreds of Greeks left this village in 1778.)
Massandra was among the estate properties of Prince Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov, Governor-General of New Russia (Novorossiya) and Bessarabia from 1823 until 1844. Largely by virtue of its productive vineyards and orchards, by the end of the nineteenth century Massandra had become the economic crown jewel of Vorontsov’s holdings, while Alupka, with its ostentatious palace, acquired the most fame.
12022-06-27T16:22:35-04:00Buyuk Uzen4garden locationplain2022-07-02T13:25:05-04:0044.8007, 34.4822There were 15 orchards covering over 6 acres, once owned by Greeks.
12022-06-27T16:18:28-04:00Mukhalatka4garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:52:47-04:0044.4078, 33.8507Eight orchards and three vineyards stood at Mukhalatka in the early 1790s. They had been the property of Tatars.
12022-06-27T16:15:08-04:00Partenit4garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:56:33-04:0044.5780, 34.3446There was an orchard and a vineyard at Partenit. Their previous owners were Tatar.
12022-06-27T16:15:51-04:00Kiziltash3garden locationplain2022-07-03T10:33:30-04:0044.5638, 34.2888There were 42 orchards and 2 vineyards at Kiziltash, all once owned by Greeks.
12022-06-27T16:18:17-04:00Küçük Koy3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:05:00-04:0044.4000, 33.9182One orchard is recorded at Küçük Koy (Kuchuk Koi), with ten trees spread across a quarter acre. It had once belonged to a Tatar.
12022-06-27T16:14:58-04:00Küçük Lambat3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:06:47-04:0044.5972, 34.3665The registers list 25 orchards at Küçük Lambat (Kuchuk Lambat).
12022-06-27T16:17:19-04:00Kureiz3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:10:43-04:0044.4315, 34.0840Kureiz had 5 orchards and 5 vineyards.
12022-06-27T16:14:07-04:00Kuru Uzen3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:19:40-04:0044.7472, 34.5400The registers list 13 orchards and 3 vineyards at Kuru Uzen, all the former property of Greeks.
12022-06-27T16:18:04-04:00Limen3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:22:08-04:0044.4113, 33.9863Limen (Limena) was the site of 3 orchards and a vineyard, all the former property of Tatars.
12022-06-27T16:15:40-04:00Dermenkoi3garden locationplain2022-07-02T13:21:50-04:0044.5923, 34.3175There were 15 orchards and 1 vineyard at Dermenkoi. The former owners were Greek.
12022-06-27T16:17:28-04:00Miskhor3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:48:45-04:0044.4306800, 34.0796500There were five orchards and five vineyards at Miskhor, the former property of Tatars.
12022-06-27T16:18:41-04:00Foros3garden locationplain2022-07-02T13:23:38-04:0044.3931, 33.7882The registers record a single small orchard at Foros. It was previously owned by a Tatar.
12022-06-27T16:16:12-04:00Gurzuf3garden locationplain2022-07-02T13:27:45-04:0044.5462, 34.2784The registers attest to 42 orchards and 3 vineyards at Gurzuf, once owned by Greeks.
12022-06-27T16:16:22-04:00Nikita3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:54:08-04:0044.5134, 34.2352Nikita was a filled with trees and vines. The registers list 66 orchards and 37 vineyards.
12022-06-27T16:17:52-04:00Simeiz3garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:57:38-04:0044.4065, 34.0070Tatars had once owned the four orchards and two vineyards.
12022-06-27T12:41:54-04:00Tuak3garden locationplain2022-07-03T13:23:28-04:0044.7733, 34.5961The registers list five orchards and three vineyards at Tuak (Tuvak).
12022-06-27T16:16:55-04:00Yalta3garden locationplain2022-07-03T13:28:28-04:0044.5022, 34.1662Seventy-six orchards and five vineyards appear in the registers.
12022-06-27T16:21:10-04:00Mishati2garden locationplain2022-07-03T12:47:26-04:00There was an orchard and a vineyard at Mishati (Mshatki), both the former property of a Tatar.