The Imperiia Project: a spatial history of the Russian Empire

Frozen (Arctic) Sea

Short Universal Geography
According to Arsen'ev, the Arctic Sea had four remarkable elements.

New and Complete Geographical Dictionary (part 3, pages 9-12)
Toponym: Frozen Sea (Ledovitoe more)
Location: This is the name for the part of the Northern Ocean from Lapland to Chukotskaia - an expanse covered in ice for most of the year.
Water has receded to lower levels along the coast - both the immense tree trunks scattered along the coast and the deposits of the bones of sea creatures are evidence of this shift.
The Dutch (16th century) and then the Russians (18th century) sought the Northeast Passage through the Frozen Sea. Efforts began in earnest with the Kamchatka Expedition during the reign of Empress Anna. Lt. Murave'v departed from Arkhangel'sk in 1734, making his way over sea (open and frozen) and land to the Kara Sea. Subsequent sailors made their way to the mouth of the Ob by 1738. At the same time, two sea-going vessels built in Tobol'sk province departed from the mouth of the Ob and made their way to the Enisei. Other ships built in Iakutsk explored the mouth of the Lena. Efforts continued, but ice flows prevented them all from attaining the Pacific coast.

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